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In the case of variance component like than estimation, the original data set is replaced by a set of and black to contrasts calculated from the data, and the likelihood function is calculated from the probability distribution of these contrasts, according to the model for the complete data set. In particular, status REML is used as a method for fitting linear mixed models. In contrast to the earlier same as maximum likelihood estimation, REML can produce unbiased estimates of variance and covariance parameters.